The Energy department has stated that UK energy bills could rise by £500m a year if the UK left the EU – pushing up the average household bill by £20 annually.

The Remain camp asserts greater interconnection with European neighbours improves our energy security through diversifying supply.

It is also argued that membership of the EU enables the UK to drive forward collective action on climate change. The EU bloc was influential in negotiating the agreement signed in Paris to stop climate change by limiting global warming to below 2°C.

Many argue EU legislation has been a positive for the waste and environment industry – forcing the UK to clean up polluted beaches, enforcing minimum air quality standards and encouraging greater recycling.

The Leave campaign states that the dividend from Brexit would enable the UK Government to be more selective in funding its own environment and energy policies.

Leaving the EU would mean that the UK could negotiate on its own at United Nations Conferences on climate change, without having to reach consensus with 27 other countries.

The UK would no longer be required to negotiate with the European Commission over exemptions on rules for energy intensive companies (e.g. the steel industry).

Most of the UK’s gas is imported from Norway, dispelling the argument that Britain relies on Russia for its gas.

Energy and the environment is an area in which the UK and the EU have become legally entwined. The UK environmental community appears to be overwhelmingly pro-Remain, believing the EU has been beneficial for green businesses. They cite the transnational nature of environmental challenges such as climate change and air quality and say these necessitate unified, common action.

In the Leave camp, ardent eurosceptics see Brexit as an opportunity for the UK to rid itself of burdensome renewable energy targets and directives from Brussels and develop stronger energy policies domestically. Others in the Leave camp such as former Mayoral candidate Zac Goldsmith present a different argument. He believes the UK can still play a leadership role in environmental action due to strong domestic legislation such, pointing to the 2008 Climate Change Act.